Microwave & Terahertz

The technology platform Microwave & Terahertz offers turnkey as well as customized solutions along the entire microelectronic value chain. We can help you with profound knowledge in design, manufacturing, packaging and characterization, as well as cost-efficiency-tests for reliable devices with high performances, integrated circuits and systems for applications up to the THz-regime. In the development-section we focus on emerging future applications, especially the ones related to communication and sensing (e.g. 5G mm-Wave or radar sensing for autonomous / self-driving vehicles).


In-depth knowledge in Packaging and Heterointegration for high frequency applications

Leading-edge Devices and Circuits for applications up to the THz-regime

Design of Systems e.g. for communication or high and ultra-high frequencies

FMD offers Si-based and Compound-Semiconductor-based Cleanrooms that allow processing of Si, SiGe, InP, GaN/SiC, InGaAs/GaAs to build devices such as HBTs, HEMTs, passive structures or mm-Wave Integrated Circuits (MMICs)

R&D on the Integration of III-V-materials into Si-based Technologies

Integration of InP-based HBT BICMOS Technology into one single chip

Test and Characterization of designed, with SiGe:C manufactured and assembled systems (also in harsh environments)


Europractice IC Service: Multi Project Wafer (MPW) and Prototyping 

Within the EUROPRACTICE IC Service, the Leibniz IHP as part of the Research Fab Microelectronics Germany, is providing a manufacturing service for Multi Project Wafer (MPW) and Prototyping. More information here.

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Joint project »T-KOS«

Terahertz technologies for visionary innovations in communications and sensor technology


MIRANDA-94: High Resolution Real Time SAR Imaging


5G Infrastructure for Future Wireless Communications

Compact Microwave Plasma Source

a versatile tool for various applications

GaN Microwave & Power Switching Devices

InP HBT Technology for Terahertz Applications

RF, Microwaves & Milimeter Waves

W-Band Radar Modules

Directional Radio Links for Industry 4.0 and 5G

Submillimeter-wave ICs and Modules

Integrated circuits for terahertz frequencies

Microwave & Terahertz Technologies

With its 13 member institutes of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft and Leibniz Association, the Research Fab Microelectronics Germany (FMD) demonstrates research achievements of international excellence. In this way, FMD contributes to Germany and Europe, taking a leading position in research and development. Some selected research highlights and lighthouse projects in the field of microwave & terahertz can be found below.

World's first scalable 5G mm wave module in PCB technology with directly embedded dies

© Fraunhofer IZM
Figure 1: X-ray image of the manufactured module, Figure 2: Module with patch antennas (top side), Figure 3: Test demonstrator of the module with system board
  • Extremely short, high-frequency (39 GHz) mm-wave signal paths from the chip to the integrated antenna by embedding the chips
  • Applicable for a wide range of 5G use cases due to easy scalability of multiple modules and the resulting focusing of radiation


EU funded project SERENA (H2020)


  • Ndip I, et al. (2020): A Novel Packaging and System-Integration Platform with Integrated Antennas for Scalable, Low-Cost and High-Performance 5G mmWave Systems, in 2020 IEEE 70th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2020, pp. 101-107. doi: 10.1109/ECTC32862.2020.00029
  • Kosmider S, et al. (2020): PCB Embedding Technology for 5G mmWave Applications, in 16th Annual Device Packaging Conference (DPC 2020), Fountain Hills, Arizona, USA, 3-5 March 2020. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3971608

Wireless real-time video transmission using Terahertz

© Fraunhofer IAF
Prototype of a wireless THz data transmission system with data rates above >100 Gbit/s at a distance of over one kilometer.
  • Real-time operation of terahertz data transmission which is achieving a data rate of more than 100 Gbit/s in real-time operations  a carrier frequency of  300 GHz 
  • Use of an innovative InGaAs mHEMT technology with borderline frequencies > 1 THz
  • Succesful development of ultra-broadband THz front-ends



  • Castro C, et al. (2020): Experimental Demonstrations of High-Capacity THz-Wireless Transmission Systems for Beyond 5G, in IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 41-47, November 2020. doi: 10.1109/MCOM.001.2000306
  • Castro C, et al. (2020): Real-Time Demonstration of a 100 Gb/s THz-Wireless Fiber Extender, in ITG-Fb. 294: Photonische Netze Teil der ITG-Fb. 294: Photonische Netze, pp. 28-32, November 2020. Print ISBN: 978-3-8007-5423-6
  • John L, et al. (2020): Broadband 300-GHz Power Amplifier MMICs in InGaAs mHEMT Technology, in IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 309-320, May 2020. doi: 10.1109/TTHZ.2020.2965808

Further information:



Multi-Purpose 240 GHz Radar Transceivers

© Leibniz IHP
Example for IHP 240GHz chips for point-to-point wireless link above 200 GHz with high speed modulation capabilities and large scanning bandwidth
  • Sub-THz 240GHz MIMO transceivers with more than 40 GHz bandwidth
  • Complex modulation in transceivers supports multiple radar techniques
  • Power combined power amplifier reaching 10dBm output power at 240 GHz
  • Fully integrated multiplier by-8 LO chain with 30dB spur rejection
  • On-chip LBE antenna with more than 6dBi gain



  • Eissa M H, et al. (2020): 100 Gbps 0.8-m Wireless Link based on Fully Integrated 240 GHz IQ Transmitter and Receiver, in IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS), Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2020, pp. 627-630. doi: 10.1109/IMS30576.2020.9224101
  • Ng H J, Hasan R, Kissinger D (2019): A scalable four-channel frequency-division multiplexing MIMO radar utilizing single-sideband delta–sigma modulation, in IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 4578–4590, Nov. 2019. doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2019.2930499
  • Hasan R, et al. (2019): F-Band Differential Microstrip Patch Antenna Array and Waveguide to Differential Microstrip Line Transition for FMCW Radar Sensor, in IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 19, no. 15, pp. 6486-6496, 1 Aug.1, 2019. doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2019.2909935.
  • Ahmad W A, et al. (2021): Multimode W-Band and D-Band MIMO Scalable Radar Platform, in IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 1036-1047, Jan. 2021. doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2020.3038532

III-V-MOSHEMT - Novel Transistor Technology with Record Operating Frequencies

Amplifier circuit with MOSHEMT transistors at 243 GHz.
© Fraunhofer IAF
Amplifier circuit with MOSHEMT transistors at 243 GHz.

Combining the advantages of III/V semiconductors and Si-MOSFETs in a novel device (Metal Oxide Semiconductor HEMT - MOSHEMT)

  • The maximum oscillation frequency of 640 GHz exceeds the world's technology standard for any MOSFET technology, including silicon MOSFETs
  • Reduction of the gate leakage current by more than a factor of 1000
  • The world's first amplifier IC based on InGaAs-MOSHEMTs for the frequency range between 200 and 300 GHz



  • Tessmann A, et al. (2019): 20-nm In0.8Ga0.2As MOSHEMT MMIC Technology on Silicon, in IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Volume: 54, Issue: 9, (Sept. 2019). doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2019.2915161
  • Leuther A, et al. (2019): THz frequency HEMTs: Future trends and applications, in Compound Semiconductor Week, (CSW 2019). Proceedingss, Japan. doi: 10.1109/ICIPRM.2019.8819000
  • Tessman A, et al. (2018): High gain 220 - 275 GHz amplifier MMICs based on metamorphic 20 nm InGaAs MOSFET technology, in IEEE BiCMOS and Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Technology Symposium, (BCICTS 2018), USA. doi: 10.1109/BCICTS.2018.8550836

Further information:

MOSHEMT - innovative transistor technology reaches record frequencies

Digital Power Amplifiers

Highly efficient and compact: novel GaN-based digital power amplifier MMIC (3-stage). The novel concept delivers highest PAE (40 %) over 10 dB power back-off range at 900 MHz. Highest linearity achieved: with the help of push-pull drivers digital amplifier according to DPD delivers more than 50 dB A.
© Leibniz FBH
Highly efficient and compact: novel GaN-based digital power amplifier MMIC (3-stage). The novel concept delivers highest PAE (40 %) over 10 dB power back-off range at 900 MHz. Highest linearity achieved: with the help of push-pull drivers digital amplifier according to DPD delivers more than 50 dB A.
  • The world's first completely digital transmitter chain implemented
  • Realization of a GaN-based purely digital transmitter chain in the microwave range
  • New (patented) modulator concept, digital PA (patented), filter, switch (patents: US 2019 / 0131999 A1 & DE 102016106790A1)


DFG-funded projects (WE 6288/3-1, WE 6288/1-1)


  • Hühn F, et al. (2017): A New Modulator for Digital RF Power Amplifiers Utilizing a Wave-Table Approach, in International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, Volume 9, Issue 6, pp. 1251 – 1260, (July 2017). doi: 10.1109/EuMC.2016.7824474
  • Hühn F, et al. (2019): Highly Compact GaN-based All-Digital Transmitter Chain Including SPDT T/Rx Switch for Massive MIMO Applications, in International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, Vol. 11, Special Issue 7, pp. 609 - 617, (April 2019). doi: 10.1017/S175907871900045X
  • Hühn F, et al. (2019): A Reconfigurable Modulator for Digital Outphasing Transmitters, in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest 2019, pp. 1480 – 1483, USA (June 2019). doi: 10.1109/MWSYM.2019.8700817
  • Hoffmann T, et al. (2019): GaN Digital Outphasing PA, in Proceedings of the 49th European Microwave Conference (EuMC), pp. 551 - 554, France (October 2019). doi: 10.23919/EuMC.2019.8910788

Further information:
Digital PA Lab

SiGe Single-Chip Radars

The radar chip in an open QFN package, which is mounted on an FR4 board.
© Fraunhofer FHR
The radar chip in an open QFN package, which is mounted on an FR4 board.
  • Development of broadband analog circuits up to 300 GHz for high-resolution imaging using SAR and ISAR techniques --> First SAR images at 300 GHz worldwide
  • Integrated FMCW radar chips up to 240 GHz
  • Development of multi-channel transmit/receive chips for MIMO applications


EU project RadiFLAT
Collaborative Research Centre Marie


  • Thomas S, et al. (2019): A SiGe-Based 240-GHz FMCW Radar System for High-Resolution Measurements, in IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 4599-4609, Nov. 2019. doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2019.2916851
  • Thomas S, et al. (2016): A Compact, Energy-Efficient 240 GHz FMCW Radar Sensor with High Modulation Bandwidth, in Proc. German Microwave Conference (GeMiC) 2016, Germany. doi: 10.1109/GEMIC.2016.7461639
  • Thomas S, et al. (2017): Ultra-Wideband Signal Generation at 300 GHz in a SiGe BiCMOS Technology, in Proc. 12th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC), Germany, 2017. doi: 10.23919/EuMIC.2017.8230679

Further information:

High-Resolution 240-GHZ Radar with SiGe Chip