Wireless Sensor Networks

© Fraunhofer IAF


Miniaturization and system integration

Low power of sensor node: RF Module with low latency times, harvester longevity, wake-up system

Intelligence of sensor node using methods of AI

Wireless communication standards: Optimum of data rate, transmission range, security, energy

Security: reliable RF communication, resilience against side canal attacks

3rd generation of sensor networks: large, distributed, self organized, cooperative

Adaptation of wireless sensors technologies to use case, e.g. industrial IoT scenarios, asset tracking and integration in commercial IoT platforms



  • MEMS Sensors & Actuators
  • Functionality enhancement via novel sensor concepts
  • Software for signal (pre)-processing in sensor node: embedded IoT, AI, sensor data fusion

Connectivity Technology: RF, Optical, IR

  • RF Components (amplifier, transceiver, MIMO antennae, compact antenna, novel RF design)
  • RF protocols & standards (WiFi, LiFi, ZigBee/EnOcean, Bluetooth LE, LoRa, RFID, UWB, 5G)
  • Communication architecture in sensor networks (multihop, ad-hoc, MAC)
  • Wireless standards: MIOTY (ETSI, Telegram Splitting for LPWANs), s-net (self organised bi-directional Multi-Hop Communication for LTN)
  • Integrated crypto processor

Low Power Technologies

  • Modular ULP IoT-core and modular concept for energy supply
  • Zero power senor-signal processing frontend (ZeSCIP) and low-loss DC-DC-converter
  • Highly efficient ICs for mm Wave Communication (GaN on Si, 60 GHz frequency band with PAE > 30%)
  • Power minimization algorithms with simultaneous latency guarantee


  • SoC, SiP
  • 3D-Stacking, TSV

Energy Storage (e.g. micro batteries) and energy harvesting technologies

  • Mechanical/Vibrational (piezo-electric, electromagnetic, electrostatic-capacitive)
  • Thermal-electric, PV and new conceps (e.g. Triboelectric Nanogenerators/TENG)

Localisation & Positioning

  • Ranging systems, angle of arrival, cell of origin
  • Fingerprinting, real-time location